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Sculpture of ancient egypt

Sculpture of ancient egypt

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Sculpture in the culture of the most ancient civilization on Earth plays a crucial role. Hence the desire by any means to preserve the body of a deceased person (embalming and mummification), as well as the creation of a large number of sculptures that can serve as a shell for the soul of ka.

Another feature of Egyptian sculpture is the strict canons (rules) by which all images were created. On the one hand, the sculpture had to be realistic enough for the soul to recognize its shell, on the other hand, the canon demanded complete symmetry in the image of a person, and physique also obeyed strict rules. That is why numerous images of pharaohs, priests and gods seem to be of the same type, and differences exist only in facial features. Departure from the rules was allowed only when portraying people of the lower class: officials, military, etc.

The vast majority of sculptures in ancient Egypt are static. Most often, kings and gods are depicted sitting on the throne, or standing, the hands of the figures rest on their knees, or crossed on their chests, their eyes fixed on them. Such an angle created an amazing effect, it seems to the viewer that the statue is looking directly at him, from whatever angle he looks at the sculpture. The huge eyes of the sculptures - also has a cult significance. The Egyptians were sure that the soul of man is in his eyes. Therefore, all the sculptures were painted very carefully.

The most famous Egyptian sculpture is the Great Sphinx. Mythical creature with the head of the pharaoh Khafr and the body of a lioness. Monumental sculpture, guardian of the pyramids served as a guard of peace for the kings in the valley of the pyramids. A magnificent posture, a glance full of peace and detachment, power and inner strength still make an indelible impression on tourists.

Particularly noteworthy are the temple sculptures of the pharaohs and gods. Performed in strict accordance with the canon, the Egyptian kings are majestic, well-built and detached. It was possible to portray Pharaoh, a living god, only outside of time and life. All standing sculptures depict the king taking a step forward (the so-called step to eternity), symbolically this means the transfer of the lord from earthly life to eternal life.

The sculptural masks of the pharaohs, which covered the face of the pharaohs in sarcophagi, are extremely interesting. Masters used precious metals and multi-colored enamels to create masks. The most famous mask is Pharaoh Tutankhamun.

The sculptural portraits of Egyptian masters left us brilliant examples of realism and plasticity. Portraits of Nefertiti, Teye, Mikerin, Amenhotep III and others are undoubted masterpieces of ancient art. Most often, sculptural portraits are preserved parts of statues lost over the centuries.

A separate discussion is worthy of the art of the Amarna period. At this time, when Pharaoh Akhenaten forbade the worship of the numerous gods of the Egyptians and proclaimed monotheism. At the same time, artists were allowed to depart from the canon, to portray people as they really are. Therefore, the statues and images of the rebellious pharaoh himself are radically different from the images of other rulers. In front of the viewer is an ugly man, with crooked legs and a bulging belly. But the value of these images lies precisely in their historical authenticity and veracity.

For their sculptures, the masters of Ancient Egypt used a variety of materials: wood, alabaster, basalt, quartzite, limestone. The features of each material were taken into account, helping to create unique, special, accurate and reliable images within the framework of strict canons.

The best examples of sculptures of Ancient Egypt are stored in museums in London, Paris, Berlin, Cairo. Several examples of Egyptian sculptures adorn the streets of St. Petersburg, and are also in the collection of the Hermitage, Pushkin Museum in Moscow.

The mysterious half-smiles of all the statues of Egypt make the viewer again and again peer into the eyes of the once great rulers of the most powerful and developed state of the beginning of terrestrial civilization.

Watch the video: Giza Plateau Of Egypt: More Evidence Of Ancient Machining (May 2022).